Concussion/mTBI denotes the acute neurophysiological event related to blunt impact or other mechanical energy applied to the head, neck or body (with transmitting forces to the brain), such as from sudden acceleration, deceleration or rotational forces. Concussion can be sustained from a motor vehicle crash, sport or recreational injury, falls, workplace injury, assault or incident in the community. Clinical signs of concussion immediately following the injury include any of the following:
Concussion is a traumatic brain injury at the beginning of the brain injury spectrum ranging from mild to severe brain injury. Mild TBI is among the most common neurological conditions with an estimated annual incidence of 500/100,000 in the United States.6 One Canadian study examining both hospital-treated cases as well as those presenting to a family physician calculated the incidence of mTBI in Ontario to lie between 493/100,000 and 653/100,000, depending on whether diagnosis was made by primary care physicians or a secondary reviewer.7
Clinical symptoms most commonly experience following concussion are listed in Table A.
A person who is a member of a regulated college. Recommended experience/training of healthcare professionals treating patients for concussion symptoms should include:
A variety of physical, cognitive, emotional and behavioural symptoms that may endure for weeks or months following a concussion.
Primary care provider (PCP):
A physician or nurse practitioner who sees people who have common medical problems and can provide comprehensive management of a health issue. This person provides continuing care to patients and coordinates referrals to other healthcare practitioners.